MATERI ANALISIS LAPORAN KEUANGAN
RPS AKUNTANSI MANAJEMEN
Policy Tools Used by the Bank of England
An Economic Policy is an economic policy that a country implements in order to promote economic growth by controlling the costs associated with the changes in the level of activity in the economy. The overall economic policy of most governments covers the monetary systems, national budgets, tax allocation, interest rates and other such areas of government intervention into the domestic economy. All these policies have an impact on the short and medium term economic performance of a country. The intention of these policies is to maintain the current economic structure while allowing some room for adjustment if the need arises.
An economic policy, therefore, aims to make domestic economic policies more effective. It also attempts to ensure the long-term sustainability of the domestic monetary system. Basically, this policy is an attempt to avoid deflation, which results from a fall in aggregate demand in response to a fall in aggregate supply in the domestic economy. This policy aims to prevent the downward shift of prices that can result from a fall in aggregate demand due to fiscal stimulus programs. And, as part of the overall effort to promote economic stability, it is also used to control the risk that the fiscal policy will become ineffective, leading to a shift in the interest rates and the real exchange rate.
In addition, this policy is also implemented when there is a need to maintain a certain level of foreign currency liquidity for certain countries. For example, during the time of the Asian economic crisis, a very large amount of money was withdrawn from the United States dollar and placed in various Asian currencies. This policy, sometimes called monetarily easing or monetizing the dollar, allowed the dollar to be retained as the reserve currency in the eyes of many investors. The Asian crisis eventually ended when this foreign currency liquidity was restored.
The basic reason for monetizing the dollar is to avoid direct costs of trade that are related to the changes in the balance of payments. To illustrate, if the United States government decides to sell dollars and buy Chinese dollars, a trade deficit would arise. Because of the policy adopted by the U.S. government, the Chinese government could now raise its value against the dollar, which eliminated the trade deficit. In this way, monetization is seen as an important part of a country’s economic recovery strategy.
When a country has a persistent current account deficit, that country will have a lower economic growth rate. A similar situation could occur in the case of Greece, the euro area, Italy, or Japan. Because of these circumstances, a policy called deflation may be applied. In order to combat deflation, the European Central Bank can change the central interest rate to offset any excess demand from the local economy. In order to provide additional support for the national currency, a common practice is to allow the central bank to intervene actively in the market. This form of fiscal policy is often used after a shock to the economy, such as a collapse of a financial institution or the sudden loss of confidence due to market unpredictability.
On a broader scale, the use of fiscal policy is also seen in the Forex market. In general, the Forex policy is employed as a method to counter trade imbalances caused by currency depreciation. The Bank of England is the Bank of Europe’s central bank. In addition to this, the EIB [European Central Bank] or the European Monetary Fund can also become involved in the policy. While these bodies do not actually intervene in the domestic exchange market directly, they are used to provide support for exporters of specific goods and to ensure that import surpluses are reduced.
In the case of the UK, imports and exports are closely tied to changes in the supply of certain products. Because of this, the Bank of England uses two policy tools: the base rate tool and the base interest rate. Changes in the base rate can affect the competitiveness of the UK economy and the extent to which trade flows are balanced. Similarly, the base interest rate can impact the amount paid by firms for borrowing money and affect the level of investment made by consumers.
The use of these policy tools is essential to ensure the economic stability of the country. However, it should be noted that these instruments only become operative once a country has experienced a substantial run of growth. For instance, the Bank of England base rate Tool has been frequently used since the onset of the global credit crunch in order to offset recent increases in exports. While a significant rise in exports can boost overall competitiveness and lift the economy out of its recent slump, an increase in imports will prevent the economy from growing at the same pace as it would otherwise. This is why it is particularly important to pay attention to official economic indicators like the Purchasing Managers Index (PMI), the Retail Purchasing Managers Index (RPMI) and Producer Price Index (PPI).
The Econo policy is an economic policy that aims to support economic activity. This policy was created during the First World War to control inflation. Today, many countries are still using this type of policy in order to control the cost of economic activity. The economic policy of many governments covers all the major aspects of the economy, from national budgets, tax schemes, the exchange rate, central bank interventions, public ownership, and several other aspects of public economic intervention in the economy. If a country wishes to have more economic growth and is facing a significant problem on how to make up for a particular deficit, it may resort to this type of policy to curb the cost of economic activity.
There are four different types of economic policy, each applicable in certain economic problems. The first one is called a central economic policy. In this case, the central bank controls the overall price level through various methods like interest rate decisions, currency exchange rates, or the balance of trade. The central bank is also allowed to intervene in the market to change the interest rate if necessary to stabilize inflation. Changes in the foreign exchange rate may affect production, employment, infrastructure, and capital investment. It also affects trade flows and reallocation of resources.
The second type of policy is called price controls. In this case, the central bank limits the cost of economic activities through various means, such as fixing prices or increasing the monetary base. Price ceilings protect the weakest members of the industry from predatory competition. Control over costs can also be used to avoid inflationary shocks to the economy and maintain competitiveness.
The third type of economic policy is called price stability. In this case, the central bank does not interfere with market costs. However, it is allowed to intervene in the market to change the cost of economic activities to stabilize inflation. This policy is called a form of deflation. Inflation usually leads to costlier goods and services, which lead to a decrease in demand for goods and services, which lead to less employment and a decrease in investment.
Inflation and cost constraints can be combined to form a form of price stability. Price changes are allowed only to bring about an increase in long-run efficiency. Thus, policy makers use various instruments like taxes, price ceilings, and interest rate modifications to bring about this cost-eliminating policy. These policies do not, however, eliminate inflation.
The fourth type of economic intervention is called stabilization. In order to stabilize an economy, the central bank should adjust interest rates, target short-term rates, or both in order to make market adjustments. Stabilizing monetary policy, for example, is a form of economic stimulus. Economic policies that aim at stabilizing inflation also constitute this policy. A number of countries employ this form of intervention today.
Market-based interventions are the last category of economic policies. They are designed to correct the negative effects of any form of price increase, including cost-push inflation, on the size of the economy. Examples of market-based interventions are import price controls, export restrictions, and trade protection. The main purpose of this type of intervention is to make the domestic economy more efficient by correcting the external imbalances that tend to cause price increases.
All these types of interventions aim at bringing about a change in the structure of the economy, with the aim of reducing aggregate demand in response to increased aggregate supply. Aggregate demand refers to the tendency for prices to rise when supply is reduced. The term ‘monetary policy’ refers to any measure or combination of policies that are implemented in response to the changes in aggregate demand. Policy makers use different policies to bring about changes in the structure of the economy, depending on their view of the equilibrium of the economy. Monetary policy is therefore a key component of an economic policy.
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